__Update: 17 April 2022__

updated and annotated reading and viewing list

Colonialism was con-all-ism. Beware of “decolonisation” recommendations coming from “prestigious” universities of the coloniser: they misdirect.

**Basic books**

*Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: the nature of mathematical proof, and the transmission of the calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE*(Pearson Longman, 2007, PHISPC Vol. X.4, 477+xlv pp, ISBN: 81-317-0871-3. Summary at__http://ckraju.net/papers/GJH-book-review.pdf__. https://ghadar.org.in/2008/01/20/cultural-foundations-of-mathematics/*Euclid and Jesus: How and Why the Church Changed Mathematics and Christianity across Two Religious Wars*. Penang: Multiversity and Citizens International, 2012.*Is Science Western in Origin?*Dissenting Knowledges Pamphlet Series. Multiversity, 2009. Reprint, 2013, Other India Bookstore, Goa.

**Recent popular level (but serious) articles**

Racism in the math classroom: “Pythagorean theorem” and the two myths of “Euclid”

^{1}Indian calculus, California math framework and technology, Part 1: The Indian origin of Calculus and its Transmission to Europe and Part 2: Don’t cancel the calculus, make it easy!

^{4}, short summary: How to make calculus easy^{5}

**Scholarly
articles**

Decolonisation article, Durban: Deductive proofs are fallible.

^{6}Ganita vs math Hindi article, Himanjali.

^{7}

Broader articles on decolonising math

**and**science: Ending the hegemony of the university, Beirut,^{8}Decolonising mathematics: How and why it makes science better (and enables students to solve harder problems) Palestine,^{9}failure of real-number calculus at singularities and singularity theory (Roger Penrose, and Stephen Hawking)^{10}Euclid must fall articles, part 1: the origins of racism, and part 2: no axiomatic proof of Pythagorean theorem in Greek math

^{11}related video of talk at univs of Tubingen-Pretoria,^{12}and “Goodbye Euclid” videos of talk at Universiti Sains Malaysia, and offer of challenge prize for primary evidence of Euclid.^{13}

Springer encyclopedia articles, Calculus, Calculus transmission, zeroism, logic

^{14}Articles reporting teaching of calculus courses to 4 math groups (3 UG + 1 PG) in Universiti Sains Malaysia part 1: Formal math as biased metaphysics, and part 2: calculus without limits

^{15}Introductory lectures USM/SGT, 2010, 2017. Three preliminary technical lectures (from viewpoint of formal math) for faculty, before calculus course. Calculus without limits: the theory, Part 1: current pedagogy of the calculus, a critique, Part 2: a critique of formal math, axioms and definitions (including whether reals or non-Archimedean arithmetic is needed for calculus), Part 3: choice of logic underlying proof.

^{16}Blogs on calculus teaching experiments: Central University of Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, Varanasi: Ambedkar University, Delhi, (“Calculus for social scientists”), Center for International Scientific Studies and Cooperation, Tehran, SGT University, Delhi.

^{17}Workshop and “Institute lecture” at IIT: BHU.Video of talk at MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 2015, Abstract: “Calculus: the real story”. Presentation.

Video of TSSP Eminent Scholar lecture, Abstract, Presentation.

Video of talk at IISc, Bengaluru, 2015, “Calculus: ganita or math?”. Abstract at “Ganita vs math: ten myths underlying Western math and the need to reject them.”

An early article: “Computers, Mathematics Education, and the Alternative Epistemology of the Calculus in the YuktiBhâsâ”,

*Philosophy East and West,***51**(3),

Probability in ancient India,

^{18}article for Elsevier Handbook for Philosophy of Statistics.Probability, simplified article in Springer encyclopedia.

^{19}Video of JNU talk “Statistics for social science and humanities.

^{20}

Early paper: Indian rope trick, “Goodbye Euclid!”

^{21}Workshop on Rajju Ganita, Indore, announcement, photos, media reports.

Comprehensive workshop on “Rajju Ganita vs Euclidean geometry”, announcement,

^{22}links to videos (5 hours 42 mins), Part 1, and Part 2.^{23}

An updated list of 70+ videos is at https://tinyurl.com/ckr-video.

Older press reports and popular-level newspaper articles. http://ckraju.net/press/.

1https://medium.com/@c_k_raju/racism-in-the-math-classroom-pythagorean-theorem-and-the-two-myths-of-euclid-c83da308bda4.

4C.
K. Raju, ‘California, Indian Calculus and the Technology Race.
1: The Indian Origin of Calculus and Its Transmission to Europe’,
*Boloji.Com*,
11 December 2021,
https://www.boloji.com/articles/52924/california-indian-calculus; C.
K. Raju, ‘California, Indian Calculus and the Technology Race.
2: Don’t Cancel the Calculus, Make It Easy!’,
*Boloji.Com*,
24 December 2021,
https://www.boloji.com/articles/52950/california-indian-calculus-and.

5“How to make calculus easy”, https://tinyurl.com/ckr-calc2s.

6C.
K. Raju, ‘Decolonising Mathematics’, *AlterNation*
25, no. 2 (2018): 12–43b. Video
of Durban keynote:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpS6MfzJr2E.

7C.
K. Raju, ‘गणित
बनाम मैथमेटिक्स
[Ganita vs
Mathematics]’, *Himanjali*
20, no. July-December (2020): 34–44,
http://iias.ac.in/himanjali/.
Alternative
link:
http://ckraju.net/papers/ckr-article-Himanjali-22%e2%80%94Final-18-06-2021.pdf.

8C.
K. Raju, ‘How to break the hegemony perpetuated by the
university: decolonised courses in mathematics and the history and
philosophy of science (Arabic)’, in *Culturalistion
of Humanities: Vision and Experiments. (Proceedings of the
International Conference on Culturalization of the Humanities, held
in Beirut on 20-21 November 2018.)*
(Beirut: Al Maaref University, 2019), 77–114,
http://ckraju.net/papers/Beirut-paper%20for%20iias%20journal.pdf;
Raju, C. K., ‘How to Break the Hegemony Perpetuated by the
University: Decolonised Courses in Mathematics and the History and
Philosophy of Science’, *Studies
in Humanities and Social Sciences*
26, no. 2 (2019): 86–109.

9C.
K. Raju, ‘Decolonising Mathematics: How and Why It Makes
Science Better (and Enables Students to Solve Harder Problems)’,
*Palestine
Technical University Research Journal*
6, no. 2 (2018): 1–4. Censored
by Israel’s refusal to grant a visa.
http://ckraju.net/papers/Palestine-article.pdf.
Original
link:
https://scholar.ptuk.edu.ps/bitstream/123456789/684/5/2018_%206_2_%20pp1-4%20.pdf.

10C.
K. Raju, ‘A Singular Nobel?’, *Mainstream*
59, no. 7 (30 January 2021),
http://www.mainstreamweekly.net/article10406.html.
Alternative
link: http://ckraju.net/papers/Penrose-mod.html.

11C.
K. Raju, ‘“Euclid” Must Fall: The “Pythagorean”
“Theorem” and The Rant Of Racist and Civilizational
Superiority — Part 1’, *Arụmarụka:
Journal of Conversational Thinking*
1, no. 1 (2021): 127–55,
http://ckraju.net/papers/AJCT-Euclid-must-fall-Part-1.pdf;
C. K. Raju, ‘“Euclid” Must Fall: The
“Pythagorean” “Theorem” and the Rant of
Racist and Civilizational Superiority - Part 2’, *Arumaruka:
Journal of Conversational Thinking*
1, no. 2 (2021): 57–105,
http://ckraju.net/papers/AJCT-Euclid-must-fall-Part-2.pdf.

13For links to the videos and announcement of the talk, see http://ckraju.net/blog/?p=63.

14C.
K. Raju, ‘Calculus’, in *Encyclopedia
of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine*
(Springer, 2016), 1010–15,
http://ckraju.net/papers/Springer/ckr-Springer-encyclopedia-calculus-1-final.pdf;
C. K. Raju, ‘Calculus Transmission’, in *Encyclopedia
of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine*,
ed. Helaine Selin (Dordrecht: Springer, 2016),
http://ckraju.net/papers/Springer/ckr-Springer-encyclopedia-calculus-2-final.pdf;
C. K. Raju, ‘Zeroism’, in *Encyclopedia
of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine*
(Springer, 2016),
http://ckraju.net/papers/Springer/zeroism-springer-f.pdf; ‘Logic’,
in *Encyclopedia
of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine*
(Springer, 2016 2008), pp.
2564–2570, http://ckraju.net/papers/Nonwestern-logic.pdf.

15C. K. Raju, ‘Teaching Mathematics with a Different Philosophy. 1: Formal Mathematics as Biased Metaphysics’, Science and Culture 77, no. 7–8 (2011): 274–79, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1312/1312.2099.pdf; C. K. Raju, ‘Teaching Mathematics with a Different Philosophy. 2: Calculus without Limits’, Science and Culture 7, no. 7–8 (2011): 280–85. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1312/1312.2100.pdf.

16“Calculus without limits: the theory”, “1: Current pedagogy of the calculus, a critique”, http://ckraju.net/sgt/technical-presentations-faculty/ckr-sgt-tech-presentation-1.pdf, “2: A critique of formal mathematics, 1. Axioms and definitions”, http://ckraju.net/sgt/technical-presentations-faculty/ckr-sgt-tech-presentation-2.pdf, “3: A critique of formal math, 2, The choice of logic underlying proof.” http://ckraju.net/sgt/technical-presentations-faculty/ckr-sgt-tech-presentation-3.pdf.

17https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.835427293287604&type=3, photos of students, http://ckraju.net/papers/presentations/images/calculus-sgt-a.jpg, video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sdimbGwUCA.

18C.
K. Raju, ‘Probability in Ancient India’, in *Handbook
of Philosophy of Statistics*,
ed. Paul Thagard Dov M. Gabbay and John Woods, vol. 7, Handbook of
Philosophy of Science (Elsevier, 2011), 1175–96,
http://ckraju.net/papers/Probability-in-Ancient-India.pdf.

19C.
K. Raju, ‘Probability’, in *Encyclopedia
of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine*,
ed. Helaine Selin (Dordrecht: Springer, 2016),
http://ckraju.net/papers/Springer/Probability-springer.pdf.

20C. K. Raju, Statistics for Social Science and Humanities: Should We Teach It Using Normal Math or Formal Math?, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9Og1k-Z5O4.

21C.
K. Raju, ‘Towards Equity in Math Education 2. The Indian Rope
Trick’, *Bharatiya
Samajik Chintan (New Series)*
7, no. 4 (2009): 265–69.
http://ckraju.net/papers/MathEducation2RopeTrick.pdf.C. K. Raju,
‘Towards Equity in Math Education. 1: Goodbye Euclid!’,
*Bharatiya
Samajik Chintan (New Series)*
7, no. 4 (2009): 235–64,
http://ckraju.net/papers/MathEducation1Euclid.pdf.

22Rajju Ganita workshop Bengaluru, 5-6 June 2021, http://ckraju.net/blog/?p=197.

23“Euclidean” Geometry vs Rajju Ganita, http://ckraju.net/blog/?p=200