Reading list (math)

  1. Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: the nature of mathematical proof, and the transmission of the calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE  (Pearson Longman, 2007, PHISPC Vol. X.4, 477+xlv pp, ISBN: 81-317-0871-3. Summary at

  2. Is Science Western in Origin? Multiversity, Penang, and (English and Hindi) Daanish Books 2009, 2014. Reprint 2014, Other India Bookstore, Mapusa. Also Farsi translation, Iran Universities Press, 2012. Summary at

  3. Ending Academic Imperialism, Multiversity, Penang, 2011.

  4. Euclid and Jesus: How and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity across two religious wars, Multiversity and Citizens International, 2012, 220 pp, ISBN: 978-983-3046-17-1. More details and related links at

  5. “Teaching mathematics with a different philosophy. Part 1: Formal mathematics as biased metaphysics.” Science and Culture 77 (7-8) (2011) pp. 274–279., arxiv:1312.2099.

  6. “Teaching mathematics with a different philosophy. Part 2: Calculus without limits”, Science and Culture 77 (7-8) (2011) pp. 280–85. Arxiv:1312.2100.

  7. Towards Equity in Math Education. 1: Good-Bye Euclid!”, Bharatiya Samajik Chintan (New Series) 7 (4) (2009) 255–264.

  8. Towards Equity in Math Education. 2: The Indian Rope Trick”, Bharatiya

    Samajik Chintan (New Series) 7 (4) (2009) 265–269.

  9. “Probability in Ancient India”, chp. 37 in Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, vol 7. Philosophy of Statistics, ed, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods. Elsevier, 2011, pp. 1175-1196.

  10. Articles for Encyclopedia of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine, Springer, 2008, 2014, 2016

  1. “Religious roots of mathematics”, Theory, Culture & Society 23(1–2) Jan-March 2006, Spl. Issue ed. Mike Featherstone, Couze Venn, Ryan Bishop, and John Phillips, pp. 95–97.

  2. Articles on decolonisation

  1. “Computers, Mathematics Education, and the Alternative Epistemology of the Calculus in the YuktiBhâsâ”, Philosophy East and West, 51(3), 2001, pp. 325–362.

  2. Retarded gravitation theory” in: Waldyr Rodrigues Jr, Richard Kerner, Gentil O. Pires, and Carlos Pinheiro (ed.), Sixth International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, American Institute of Physics, New York, 2012, pp. 260-276. Key point: how Newtonian gravitation changes if Newton’s mistake about the calculus is corrected. Also, a quick summary of how calculus can be rigorously done with Indian “non-Archimedean” arithmetic.

  3. Distributional matter tensors in relativity”, Proceedings of the Fifth Marcel Grossman meeting on General Relativity, D. Blair and M. J. Buckingham (ed), R. Ruffini (series ed.), World Scientific, Singapore, 1989, pp. 421–23. arxiv: 0804.1998. Key point: how Schwartz distributions (which modify the “modern” calculus) fail in the context of shock waves in relativity and renormalization problem in quantum field theory, and how this is corrected by “non-Archimedean” arithmetic. An easier account, and the relation to the problem of infinities in electrodynamics is in “Functional differential equations. 3: Radiative damping” Physics Education (India), 30(3), July-Sep 2014, Article 8.

  4. Time: what is it that it can be measured?” Science & Education, 15(6) (2006) pp. 537–551. Draft available from Key point: Teaching science does not match experience because of difficulties with mathematics (as in simple pendulum and Jacobian elliptic functions). Newton made time metaphysical (leading to the failure of his physics).

  5. Mathematics and Culture”, in History, Culture and Truth: Essays Presented to D. P. Chattopadhyaya, ed. Daya Krishna and K. Satchidananda Murthy, Kalki Prakash, New Delhi, 1999, pp. 179–193. Reprinted in Philosophy of Mathematics Education 11. Available at Original version without mistakes: Key points: Mathematics is supported for its practical applications. Theorem proving is a cultural exercise, and theorems vary with logic. Logic is not unique, as in Buddhist logic.

  6. Eternity and Infinity: the Western misunderstanding of Indian mathematics and its consequences for science today.” American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Asian and Asian American Philosophers and Philosophies 14(2) (2015) pp. 27-33. Proof at

Additional Reading (Time)

  1. Time: Towards a Consistent Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1994).

  2. The Eleven Pictures of Time (Sage, 2003).

  3. Time Travel and the Reality of Spontaneity”, Found. Phys., 36(7) 2006, pp. 1099-1113.

  4. Atman, Quasi-Recurrence and paticca samuppada, in Self, Science and Society, Theoretical and Historical Perspectives, ed. D. P. Chattopadhyaya, and A. K. Sengupta, PHISPC, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 196-206.

  5. Islam and Science”, Keynote address at International Conference on Islam and Multiculturalism, Univ. of Malaya. In Islam and Multiculturalism: Islam, Modern Science, and Technology, ed. Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, and Organization for Islamic Area Studies, Waseda University, Japan, 2013, pp. 1-14.

  6. Articles on Functional Differential Equations

    1. Functional differential equations.1: a new paradigm in physics”, Physics Education (India), 29(3), July-Sep 2013, Article 1.

    2. Functional differential equations 2: The classical hydrogen atom”, Physics Education (India), 29(3), July-Sep 2013, Article 2.

    3. Functional differential equations. 3: Radiative damping”, Physics Education (India), 30(3), July-Sep 2014, Article 8.

    4. Functional Differential Equations. 4: Retarded gravitation”, Physics Education (India) 31(2) April-June, 2015,

    5. Functional Differential Equations. 5: Time travel and life”, Physics Education (India) 31(4) Oct-Dec, 2015.

    6. Functional Differential Equations. 6: Quantum mechanics”, Physics Education (India) 32(1) Jan-March, 2016.

  7. Harmony principle”, in Philosophy East and West, 63 (4) 2013, pp. 586-604. A similar paper with the same title also in an edited volume Svaraj and samvad, ed. Shail Mayaram, Sage, 2013.

Select videos

  1. Ending Academic imperialism”, Tehran:

  2. C. K. Raju interviewed by Claude Alvares”: links to 4 videos are posted at

  3. Students of the new decolonised courses on history and philosophy of science, interviewed by Claude Alvares:
    Short version (2.5 minutes):

  4. History and philosophy of science” (a talk in a Palestinian refugee camp):,

  5. Decolonising math and science education.” First half hour of the video at

  6. Decolonising math and science education”, talk at Delhi University.

  7. Calculus: the real story”, talk at MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Links to presentation and abstract posted at

  8. Calculus: ganita or math”, talk at Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru,

  9. Decolonising math”, talk at Univ. of Amsterdam, Presentation, posted at

  10. Decolonising math and science”, panel discussion at University of Cape Town, Summary at