Reading list on History and Philosophy of Mathematics:
related books, articles, videos, news, and talks by C. K. Raju
(4 books, 32 articles, 12 videos, numerous newspaper items and talks)


  1. [2007] Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The Nature of Mathematical Proof, and the Transmission of the Calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE, Pearson Longman, New Delhi, 2007, PHISPC Vol. X.4, 477+xlv pp, ISBN: 81-317-0871-3. For a summary, see

  2. [2009] Is Science Western in Origin? (Multiversity, Penang, 2009, Daanish Books, Delhi, 2009, Kindle Edition, 2009). Also available in Hindi and Farsi. Key points: the history of mathematics and science was concocted by church historians during the Crusades and the Inquisition, and later developed by racist and colonial historians. Euclid and Ptolemy are pure concoctions while claims about the Copernican and Newtonian revolution are wrong since they rested on imported knowledge of astronomy and calculus.

  3. [2011] Ending Academic Imperialism: a beginning (Citizens International, Penang, 2011). For a draft, see Link to video below.

  4. [2012] Euclid and Jesus: How and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity across two religious wars, Multiversity, Penang, 2012.


  1. [1997] “The Mathematical Epistemology of Sunya,” in: The Concept of Sunya, ed. A. K. Bag and S. R. Sarma, IGNCA, INSA and Aryan Books International, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 168–181. Key point: Indian math involved a different epistemology. Not merely zero.

  2. [1998]“Mathematics and Culture”, in History, Culture and Truth: Essays Presented to D. P. Chattopadhyaya, ed. Daya Krishna and K. Satchidananda Murthy, Kalki Prakash, New Delhi, 1999, pp. 179–193. Reprinted in Philosophy of Mathematics Education 11. Available at Original version without mistakes: Key points: Mathematics is supported for its practical applications. Theorem proving is a cultural exercise, and theorems vary with logic. Logic is not unique, as in Buddhist logic.

  3. [1998] “Interactions between India, Western and Central Asia, and China in Mathematics and Astronomy,” in : A. Rahman (ed) Interactions between India, Western and Central Asia, and China, PHISPC, and Oxford Univ. Press, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 227–254. Key points: Hilbert’s and Birkhoff’s axiomatisation do not fit the Elements. In the case of barbarian incursions, like those of Alexander, knowledge flows towards the military conqueror.

  4. [1999] “Approximation and Proof in the Yuktibhâsâ Derivation of Madhava’s Sine Series”. Proc. National Conference on Applied Sciences in Sanskrit, Agra, Feb 1999.

  5. [1999] How Should ‘Euclidean’ Geometry be Taught”, in Nagarjuna G. (ed) History and Philosophy of Science: Implications for Science Education, Homi Bhabha Centre, Bombay, 2001, pp. 241–260.

  6. [2000] “Computers, Mathematics Education, and the Alternative Epistemology of the Calculus in the YuktiBhâsâ”, Philosophy East and West, 51:3 (2001) pp. 325–362. Key point: A key aspect of Indian epistemology of mathematics was the use of empirical proofs. Logic varies with culture so Western mathematical proofs are not reliable, but are mere cultural truths.

  7. [2000] The Infinitesimal Calculus: How and Why it Was Imported into Europe.” Talk delivered at the International Conference on Knowledge and East-West Transitions, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, Dec 2000. Key point: calculus was imported to Europe in connection with the problems of European navigation: loxodromes, latitude, longitude.

  8. [2004] “Math Wars and the Epistemic Divide in Mathematics”, Paper presented at Centre for Research in Mathematics and Science Education, San Diego, 2004. Also at Episteme-1, Goa, 2004. Final version in Cultural Foundations of Mathematics, chp. 9. Extended abstract at Full paper at Key point: the difficulties of mathematics arise because we imitate the European experience, which involved difficulties in reconciling the religious view of math with imported arithmetic (first math war) and the imported calculus (second math war).

  9. [2005] “Time: what is it that it can be measured?” Science & Education, 15(6) (2006) pp. 537–551. Draft available from Key point: Teaching science does not match experience because of difficulties with mathematics (as in simple pendulum and Jacobian elliptic functions). Newton made time metaphysical (leading to the failure of his physics).

  10. [2005] Time Measurement in Classical Indian Tradition and the Present-Day Representation of Time as a Continuum,” in Proc. 2nd International Pendulum Conference, ed. M. R. Matthews, UNSW, Sydney, 2005, pp. 225-248. Draft available from Key point: Newton wanted time to be like a straight line and a continuum, today identified with formal real numbers. This is a mere Western cultural prejudice. Calculus can be done perfectly well on computers, and with other number systems.

  11. [2005] The Religious Roots of Mathematics”, Theory, Culture & Society 23(1–2) Jan-March 2006, Spl. Issue ed. Mike Featherstone, Couze Venn, Ryan Bishop, and John Phillips, pp. 95–97. Key point: the present-day idea of mathematics as metaphysics relates to post-Crusade Christian rational theology. This is true also of Wittgenstein-Tarski semantics.

  12. [2005] “Proofs and refutations in mathematics and physics: an Indian perspective” in History of Science and Philosophy of Science ed. P. K. Sengupta, Pearson Longman, 2012, pp. 273-94.,pdf. Key point: why mathematics and physics were regarded as two different forms of knowledge in the West but not in India.

  13. Cultural Foundations of Mathematics”, Ghadar Jari Hai, 2(1), 2007, pp. 26-29.

  14. [2007] Symposium on Math in relation to technology etc. India International Centre, Nov 2007.

  15. [2007] “Towards Equity in Math Education 1. Good-Bye Euclid!”, Bharatiya Samajik Chintan 7 (4) (New Series) (2009) pp. 255–264. Key point. No evidence for Euclid. The Elements is a religious (mathesis) text which was reinterpreted during the Crusades.

  16. [2007] “Towards Equity in Math Education 2. The Indian Rope Trick” Bharatiya Samajik Chintan 7 (4) (New Series) (2009) pp. 265–269. Key point. Descartes had difficulty with the imported calculus because of curved lines. But curved lines are easy to measure with a string which is a substitute for the entire ritualistic compass box.

  17. [2008] “Teaching racist history”, Indian Journal of Secularism 11(4) (2008) 25-28. Indian school texts show white-skinned pictures of “Euclid” and other non-existent Greeks with a view to indoctrinate school children. The authors and authorities are well aware that they have no evidence.

  18. [2008] “Logic”. Article for Encyclopedia of Non-Western Science, Technology and Medicine, Springer, 2008.

  19. [2008] “Zeroism and Calculus without Limits”, invited talk at the 4th Nalanda Dialogue, Nalanda, Oct 2008.

  20. [2009] “Kosambi the mathematician” Special article, Economic and Political Weekly 44(20) May 16–22 (2009) pp. 33–45. Key relevant point: formal mathematicians have contributed nothing of any practical value to India.

  21. [2009] “Calculus without limits”, paper for 2nd People's Education Congress, Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Mumbai, in Proc. Key point: an account of the teaching experiment at CUTS, Sarnath.

  22. [2010] “Ending Academic Imperialism in Hard Sciences: a Beginning,” in Confronting Academic Knowledge, ed. Sue-San Gahremani Ghajar and Seyyed-Abdolhamid Mirhosseini, Iran Universities Press, Tehran, 2011, chp. 7. A longer draft at Key point: the infinities of calculus mixed with religious belief through the Christian notion of eternity.

  23. [2011]“Teaching Mathematics with a Different Philosophy. 1: Formal mathematics as biased metaphysics”. Science and Culture 77(7-8) (2011) pp. 275-80. Key points. Describes the theory behind the experiments on calculus teaching at Sarnath and USM. Formal mathematics, as taught, involves an anti-Islamic, anti-Buddhist, anti-Hindu, anti-Jain and pro-Christian bias.

  24. [2011] “Teaching Mathematics with a Different Philosophy. 2: Calculus without limits”. Science and Culture, 77 (7-8) (2011) pp.281-86. Key point. Eliminating theology from math and teaching it the way it actually developed, makes it easy. This was demonstrated in experiments conducted at Sarnath and USM. Present-day math is religiously biased so teaching it is unconstitutional. But math experts defend it to protect their jobs. Naturally, they have never responded publicly.

  25. [2011] “Probability in Ancient India”, Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, vol 7. Philosophy of Statistics, ed. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and Malcolm R. Forster. General Editors: Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods. Elsevier, 2011, pp. 1175-1196. Key points: Zeroism resolves the long-standing paradox of the frequentist interpretation of probability (that relative frequencies converge to probabilities only in a probabilistic sense). Buddhist logic has the key feature of quantum logic: that with probabilities on such a logic, random variable do not necessarily admit joint distributions.

  26. [2012] “Decolonising math and science education”, paper presented at the conference on “Decolonising our Universities” in Decolonising the university: the emerging quest for non-Eurocentric paradigms, ed. Claude Alvares and Shad Saleem Faruqi, Citizens International and USM, 2012, chp. 13, pp. 162-195.

  27. [2011] “Decolonising our universities: time for change.” Response to Wildavsky. GlobalHigherEd Key point: Western universities were started by the church to create propagandists. By blindly imitating the Western model, we only achieve indoctrination in lieu of education.

  28. [2011] “Swaraj in thought: Decolonising our universities for a just world order”. Paper for plenary talk at the Indian Social Sciences Congress, Wardha, Dec 2011. In Proc.

  29. [2013] “Islam and science”, Keynote address at International Conference on Islam and Multiculturalism: Islam, Modern Science and Technology, Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, 5-6 Jan 2013, In Islam and Multiculturalism: Islam, Modern Science, and Technology, ed. Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, and Organization for Islamic Area Studies, Waseda University, Japan, 2013.

  30. [2012] “Retarded gravitation theory” in: Waldyr Rodrigues Jr, Richard Kerner, Gentil O. Pires, and Carlos Pinheiro (ed.), Sixth International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, American Institute of Physics, New York, 2012, pp. 260-276. Key point: how Newtonian gravitation changes if Newton’s mistake about the calculus is corrected.

  31. [2013] “Functional differential equations: a new paradigm in physics”, part 1, Physics Education (India), 29(3), July-Sep 2013, Article 1. An expository article on the further changes needed in electrodynamics.

  32. [2013] “Functional differential equations: a new paradigm in physics”, part 2, Physics Education (India), 29(3), July-Sep 2013, Article 2.


  1. Mathematics and religion. Discussion at Qom with the Supreme Assembly of the Hekmat-i-Islami (in Farsi and English).

  2. Making math easy. Public lecture at USM.

  3. Decolonising history: Goodbye Euclid! Public lecture at USM.

  4. Academic imperialism. Talk in Tehran.

  5. Decolonising math and science education. First half hour of the video at

  6. Ending Hegemony in Hard Sciences”, talk at a conference on Hegemony in Penang, Sep 2010.

  7. “Transforming academia”. One hour interview on Iran TV, channel 4, 28 May 2012, 2100 (GMT +3.5).

  8. “History and philosophy of science”, Palestine,,

    related blog: “Mathematics in refugee camps”,

  9. “C. K. Raju, interviewed by Claude Alvares”, 4-parts Multiversity, Penang, 2013. (, etc. Vol-4 has no part.)

Press reports, newspaper articles etc.

  1. "इतिहस के विचलन" (Distorting history”) Jansatta 23 Jan 2008, ed. page.

  2. “Math made easy”, and “Mathematics? No problem”, New Strait Times, Malaysia,

  3. Report of Decolonisation conference, and extended discussion in the Sun, Malaysia, archived at 22 news clippings from the Sun, Malaysia, are archived at Additionally, 5 full pages from the New Strait Times, are archived at

  4. “Re imagining science”, New Strait Times, 19 Feb 2012. Archived at

  5. "किस गणित का उत्सव?" [What mathematics are we celebrating?], Dainik Bhaskar, 13 April 2012, edit page. Text link: Archived clipping:

  6. “National Year of Mathematics”, Millennium Post, 19 June 2012, p. 8. Online text version at

  7. “Making math easy”, Millennium Post, 5 July 2012, p. 8. Online text version at

  8. गणित कठिन क्यों लगता है? Edit page,  Dainik Bhaskar 9 June 2012.

  9. Dainik Bhaskar, September 2012.
    (a) “Math being taught wrongly”, Report of talk at National Workshop on Math, Jabalpur

    (b) “You will learn only by asking questions” Report of interaction with school students.

    (c) “Ganita differs from mathematics”. Interview reports the idea that mathematics is religiously biased, unlike ganita.

    Archived at

  1. Alef, Iran (Report on AIU workshop on history and philosophy of science,

  2. “Education as counter-revolution”, edited and reprinted as “Education and church: decolonising hard sciences”, Frontier Weekly.

  3. Al Ayyam, 30 April 2013, p-8. Report of my talk at Birzeit university, Palestine.

  4. "सेक्युलर गणित पढ़ायें" (original title),Naidunia, India, Edit page, 25 May 2013. Correction to 5 reports published on 9 May 2013, on my talk, “Yoga, mathematics, and ganita”. The blog at has a link to the entire paper.

Conferences, seminar, and talks