and why we insist on teaching it today in the inferior European way

C. K. Raju

c.k.raju@ganita.guru

- in the MOST evil, stupid and superstitious way.
- Classic example is the racist claim of White superiority.

- Boast of White superiority a MUTATION of earlier boast of Christian superiority
- (to morally justify continuation of slavery after Black slaves converted to Christianity)
- using gross
**superstitions**such as "the Bible curse of Ham/Kam".

- During colonialism boast of White superiority MUTATED to boast of Western superiority
- as explained in my article "Euclid" must fall, part 1
- (Why? Mutation because colonialism more profitable than slavery.

- AND because of the politically useful Aryan race conjecture
- that much of India had been populated by earlier White conquerors.
- so claim of White superiority lacked credibility.)

- Our encounter: Macaulay in his 1835 Minute USED the
**Dogma of Western superiority in science**saying - in hard sciences "the superiority of the Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable"
- as justification for colonial education.
- But this superstition NOT specific to Macaulay, used by colonizers across the world.
- We accepted it without ever checking it until today. That's OUR fault.

- Trick of using systematic lies about history an old Western tradition, erected since 5th c.
- To provide secular JUSTIFICATION for boast of Christian/White/Western supremacy.
- Crusading and Inquisitional history glorified "Christians and Greek friends",
- as the source of all knowledge stolen from Muslims during Crusades.

- On this fanatic "history" Christians "discovered" everything first
- not only calculus but also India (Vasco) and Americas (Columbus) itself. 🤣🤣🤣
- (Note: Vasco came from Africa to India with an Indian navigator.
- He did NOT discover sea route from Africa to India, known for 5000 years.)

- was carried forward by racist historians who glorified Whites as inventors of everything
- Then colonial historians who glorified the West with a mere change of labels
- (e.g. real or imagined Greeks labeled as Whites and then as West)
- No use blaming Macaulay while continuing to teach that false history (e.g. "Euclid") in our school texts.
- We promote the false history the colonizer used to dominate us.

- Though much Christianized/racist/colonial history is utterly fanatical and farcical
- it has some subtler aspects.
- Trick: it injects a claim of a superior PHILOSOPHY into history
- which TRICK Indians NEVER understood.

- Not a single book on history of Indian math (except mine) discusses its philosophy.
- When I was on the editorial board of JICPR, I tried to introduce it
- but MM Joshi sacked me: he thought only Sanskrit pandits must do Indian philosophy.
- but gaṇita ≠ math and Sanskrit pundits could not translate even one word correctly in centuries.

- at the 8th East West conference in Hawai'i
- published 2001 in a PHILOSOPHY journal:
*Philosophy East and West*from Hawai'i.

- We think history ONLY about chronology: "we did it first!"
- But if you continue to teach calculus on Western principles you implicitly admit
- you are inferior because philosophy of ganita inferior.
- The exact grounds on which West asserts(and you accept) its superiority unimportant.

- E.g. Africans were first enslaved on the grounds that they were inferior since non-Christians
- then on the grounds that the Christian god had cursed them to be Black.
- Net result same: they were enslaved.
- Same applies to you: whether you accept western superiority in math on grounds of history or on grounds of philosophy.

- And the fact is that we do accept the superiority of the Western philosophy of math,
- for that is how we teach calculus in all universities in the country.
- Anyway, since most people understand neither the Western philosophy of calculus (real numbers, limits, etc.)
- Nor the Indian philosophy of calculus.
- Let me give a simpler example from school geometry.

- at Science Congress in Mumbai 4 Jan 2015
- Some news reports: The Hindu, The Times of India
- On Indian tradition, Harsh Vardhan should have FIRST addressed the पूर्व पक्ष.

- E.g. Indian (NCERT) class IX school text
- ADMITS many others did it earlier
- but says "Greeks did it BETTER".

- to someone who says they did it BETTER.

- West has made so many stupid and superstitious claims of superiority down the centuries
- Is this claim of a "superior" philosophy of math another such stupid and superstitious claim?
- YES!

- The statements of the "Pythagorean proposition"
- in Baudhayana शुल्ब सूत्र 2.12 and "Euclid"
*Elements*, 1.47 are effectively identical. - The class IX school text ADMITS it, saying Indians, Egyptians etc. did geometry for its practical value,
- It says Greeks did it better bcoz they arrived at the same result in a better way using proof based on deductive "reason".

- In 75 years after freedom we never questioned it, because
- we internalized that belief in Western superiority
- which is at the core of colonial education.

- "Only Greek mathematics had proof"
- Obviously false!
- Indian gaṇita used the methods of proof as explicitly stated in the Nyaya sutra 2.
- Explicit examples here.

- Obviously false!
- Indian gaṇita DID use deductive reasoning (anumāna) as also stated in Nyaya sutra 2.
- A concrete example is provided by Aryabhaṭa's
**deduction**that the earth is round - from the
**observation**that far-off trees cannot be seen.

- Deductive reason used in BOTH ganita and math
- Starting point of deduction in Indian ganita was facts or observations as in science.
- In Western (formal) mathematics the empirical is prohibited
**exactly**as in church theology of reason:

- starting point of deduction must be an axiom
- axiom ≠ "self-evident truth"!!
- axiom = postulate = assumption as class IX text admits.

- Axioms are usually metaphysics (=fantasy) since they canNOT be empirically tested.
- Specifically they are a metaphysical fantasy of infinity closely related to church dogmas of eternity.
- All axioms of mathematics laid down by Westerners.
- So, axioms are "superior" as the starting point of deduction
- since that enables West to political control the CONTENT of math through its axioms.

- Purported superiority of Western (formal) math does NOT mean superior PRACTICAL value (prohibits facts)
- but it means superior POLITICAL value (for the West)
- since it allows the West to control the CONTENT of math.
- Anti-value for us to submit to such mind control.

- fact: in known history Europeans were historically backward and inferior in math.
- learnt basic math from India which they repeatedly imported but found difficult to understand

- Europeans themselves abandoned their native Roman arithmetic
- and adopted efficient Indian arithmetic "Arabic numerals" or Algorismus the Latin name of 9th c. al Khwarizmi
- who wrote
*Hisab al Hind*("Indian arithmetic") - lack of understanding clear from the very term zero from cipher (from Arabic sifr),
- cipher means mysterious code.

- Roman numerals additive: xxii = 10+10+1+1
- but in place value system 10 ≠ 1+0=1.
- Efficiency of Indian arithmetic from place value.

- Zero relates to negative numbers: e.g. 9-9=0
- Roman arithmetic had no negative numbers
- Hence Europeans confused about negative numbers.
- from Fibonacci (Liber Abaci early 13th c.) to Augustus de Morgan (19th c.)

- E.g. De Morgan a very influential professor from University College London
**foolishly**declared negative numbers impossible. (Morgan, Augustus de.*Elements of Algebra: Preliminary to the Differential Calculus*, 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Walton, 1837, p. xi.- and went on to say (1898) belief in witches 10000 times more possible than \(- 9 < 0\). 🤣🤣🤣

- who partly translated 7th c. Brahmagupta's unexpressed arithmetic of polynomials (and linear and quadratic equations).
- Primitive Greek/Roman arithmetic lacked √.
- Term for √2 is SURD from Latin surdus = DEAF from Arabic asumu
- Why is √2 DEAF?

- In Indian शुल्ब सूत्र √2 = DIAGONAL (कर्ण) of unit square.
- But word कर्ण also means ear,
- hence bad कर्ण mistranslated as bad ear = deaf! 😊

- Word "Sine" from sinus=fold from Arabic jaib (जेब) = pocket (OED).
- What has trigonometry to do with POCKETS?
- From Sanskrit term for it ardh-jyā - (half-chord) or जीवा
- rendered in Arabic as jībā (no v sound in Arabic).

- Written as consonantal skeleton "jb" (without nukta-s) like "pls" in SMS.
- Misread by Mozharab/Jew 12th c. Toledo mass translators as common word "jaib" = जेब = pocket.😊
- Word "trigonometry" involves a
**conceptual error**: it is about circles not triangles. - Hence my pre-test question what is \(\sin 92^∘\)? (In a right-angled triangle there cannot be any angle of \(92^∘\).)
- West was historically inferior in math,not superior.

- The 1582 Gregorian calendar reform still used primitive leap years instead of precise fractions.
- Hence, Gregorian calendar still inferior: equinox does NOT come on the same day each year.

- In India development of calculus from Aryabhata to Madhava and Nilakanth took 1000 years
- several thousand years after fractions were known.
- Many startling similarities, Madhava's sine series claimed by Newton,
- Likewise Leibniz series earlier found e.g. Yuktidipika.

- Q1. Was it calculus?
- Q2. Did Europeans steal?

- Today most people learn calculus by doing integrals and derivative
- (ONLY of elementary functions: see pre-test question paper Q7d)
- Hence, many people identify symbolic computation of derivative and integrals with calculus.
- Especially the foolish colonised mind taught to ape the "superior" West.

- But no integrals or derivatives in Indian tradition.
- So, how was it calculus?

- A. K. Bag's opinion (2003) while

REJECTING my paper on transmission of calculus from India to Europe for IJHS

"I personally feel that…the question of the transmission [of calculus] from India to Europe is basically a hypothetical issue…"

- (Why? Since what was in India was not calculus, since no integrals, derivatives.)

- Today, Indian origin of calculus widely attributed to Madhava and "Kerala school"
- This was also the WRONG belief with which I started my research in 1997,
- my project was titled "Madhava and the origin of calculus"
- but I corrected it after I started teaching calculus without limits in 2009.

- Madhava gives table of 24 sine values precise to 3rd sexagesimal minute (tatpara)
- Aryabhata's sine value 1000 years earlier precise only to first sexagesimal minute (kalā)
- Key point: Madhava gives sine values, Aryabhaṭa's "sine table" has only sine DIFFERENCES
- That resolves the first issue: Indians used finite differences NOT derivatives.
- (Do NOT assume derivatives "better" or "superior").

- By means of a recurrence relation, NOT an algebraic equation
- This equivalent to what is today wrongly called "Euler" method
- of numerically solving ordinary differential equations (Nīlakaṇṭha corrects it)
- (Euler familiar with Indian math texts,hence solved Fermat's challenge problem)

- to derive his sine values.
**Solving differential equations is the heart of calculus**- and the essence of ALL problems of Newtonian physics.
**Corollary: NO NEED FOR ∫ sign since solution of \(y' = f(x)\) is the indefinite integral \(∫ˣf(t)dt\)**

- This way of doing calculus
**vastly superior** - for real-life practical applications
- since no need to restrict \(f(x)\) to be an elementary function
- E.g. first serious science experiment in school, the simple pendulum,
- involves non-elementary Jacobian elliptic functions

- Usual wrong formula \(T= 2π \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}\) not compatible with observations
- see my son's school project.
- Therefore, this is the right way to teach calculus.
- Hence, this is key aspect of how I teach calculus without limits.

- Brahmagupta critiqued Aryabhata for increasing the number of sine values/differences to 24
- His argument: earlier 7 values 15° apart adequate for the same precision with quadratic interpolation.
- Carried forward by Vateshwar who used quadratic interpolation ("Sterling's formula") + a table of 96 values.
- Achieved precision to the 2nd sexagesimal minute (vikala).

- Further, carried forward by Madhava and the later Aryabahta school in Kerala
- who used 11th/12th order interpolation to achieve
- precision to the third sexagesimal minute(tatpara)

- Aryabhata (and Brahmagupta) invented calculus, the Aryabhata school in Kerala refined it.

- There is a further issue that Aryabhata was a Dalit from Bihar,
- while people like Nilakantha were the highest caste Namboodiri Brahmins.
- To my mind this is splendid testimony of regional integration and that caste was not oppressive prior to colonialism.
- But won't go into it further.

- on Indian method
- No one interested in doing math to ensure scientific theory agrees with observation
- We only want to say we are proud we did it first
- but we are inferior so we will continue to ape the West
- regardless of whether it results in good or bad science.

- We will still do symbolic calculation of derivatives and integrals as required for IIT: entrance
- bcoz education about jobs, not knowledge or its practical applications.
- And for better-paying jobs you still need to ape the West.
- Since we are NOT concerned about doing calculus in a better and easy way,
- So let me move to the next part: was calculus stolen

- Arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry were all cases of transmission of math from India to Europe
- via Muslims who honestly acknowledged their Indian sources
- But the cases of calculus, and probability and statistics were a matter of theft
- because they went directly to Christian Europe from India.

- Europeans claimed "discovery" based on the UTTERLY EVIL 15th c. church dogma of discovery
- that any land OR knowledge "belongs" to the first Christian to sight it!
- This dogma recently repealed by the pope since its purpose of justifying land and knowledge-theft ACCOMPLISHED
- (but still part of British and US law based on it).

- Since we ape, we TEACH it in our school texts (NCERT, class XI) that "Newton discovered calculus"
- since our education APES THE WEST and we go by Western books and REFUSE to examine facts.

- Since theft is a criminal offense,
- I proposed to use the standard of evidence used in criminal law
- Namely, proof beyond reasonable doubt.

- (Instead of the usual standard of proof in history, of using "balance of probabilities")

**opportunity**: (Jesuits in Cochin in 16th c. gathered and translated local knowledge on Toledo mode)**motivation**: (navigational problem, needed correct calendar, precise trigonometric values)**circumstantial evidence**(identical infinite series, Fermat's challenge problem, Pascal's triangle, "Euler" method, Tychonic model, Clavius' trigonometric values, Stirling's formula, etc)**documentary evidence**(e.g. Ricci letter)- (though no law that a murderer/thief can be convicted only on a signed confession of murder/theft) 😀

- Let's understand "Toledo model"
- The first Western universities (Paris, Oxford, Cambridge) were set up by the church
**during Crusades**(since Christian Europe backward, needed knowledge) - The texts were Latin mass translations of Arabic texts in a library captured at Toledo.

- The church earlier burnt "heretical" texts
- but needed knowledge to fight Crusades,
- hence claimed all these texts from the religious enemy had a "theologically correct" origin in early Greeks"
- regarded as the "sole friends of Christians" by Eusebius.

- Later copied this same Toledo model in India:
**steal knowledge, lie about its history**. - Church trusts that most people are gullible fools and will never check, as we never did.
- Jesuits in Cochin systematically collected and translated Indian texts
- with the help of local Syrian Christians whom they taught in their Cochin college since 16th c.
- Later attributed it all to Christians(Fermat, Newton, Leibniz etc.) like "Vasco discovered India".

- Europe was very poor, all dreams of wealth (whether piracy or conquest) were overseas.
- Accurate navigation was needed to bring that wealth home.
- Europeans had 3 key navigational problems.
- Latitude, loxodromes, longitude at sea.

- Vasco did not know how to determine latitude at sea,
- carried back Indian navigational instrument, kamāl
- to have it "graduated in inches" &# 128513;
- (Can't be done: not a linear scale it uses a harmonic scale.)

- Kamāl tells latitude by the pole star.
- Since pole star=kau (Arabic-Malayalam) =teeth, and the string of the instrument is held between the teeth
- Vasco pompously and foolishly recorded "the pilot was telling the distance by his teeth".

- Despite stealing kamal, there still remained a problem of telling latitude in daytime:
- by measuring angular elevation of sun.
- That requires an accurate calendar which correctly determines the date of equinox,
- as explained in my Rajju Ganita geometry text for class 9.

- Hence, Christian priests interested to steal calendrical knowledge
- for Gregorian calendar reform of Christian calendar in 1582.

- Europeans navigated by plane charts
- They expected that travelling in a fixed direction
- will result in straight line motion
- but on the curved surface of the earth it results in a logarithmic spiral called a loxodrome = curved line.

- The projection maps the sphere to a plane chart in such a way that straight line course
- results in a straight line on the chart (loxodromes are straight lines).
- This projection was known in Chinese star maps as Needham points out.

- But constructing this projection requires accurate trigonometric values (table of secants).
- 16th century navigational manuals were full of such tables.
- Simon Stevin's tables 1590, derived from Aryabhata via Arabs.

- A few years later (1607) Clavius published tables with precision of nine decimal places.
- Clavius as the Jesuits general in charge of the Gregorian reform
- was the natural recipient of texts stolen by Jesuits.

- Longitude calculation in Indian tradition requires, as Brahmagupta says, knowledge of the radius of the earth \(R_E\)
- easily calculated from elementary trigonometry
- by measuring the height of a hill
*h*and the angle of dip from it θ. - But mathematically backward Europeans could not do it.

- Therefore, the European navigational problem of determining longitude at sea persisted until 18th c.
- Many European nations offered large prizes for its solution,
- the last being the British longitude prize of 1711-12,
**half**of it given away in 1762 - because the Board of Longitude was only half sure that the prize had been won.
- The chronometer for which the prize was given became a reliable instrument only by the mid-19th century.

- Why did the Europeans have such a big problem?
- because Columbus to get funds for his project of traveling West to go East underestimated the size of the earth by 40%
- And the fact is that though Europeans stole trigonometric values they did not know how to use them to measure the radius of the earth.

- Today Internet is full of bunkum stories of Eratosthenes. Nobody gives an actual primary source? Why not? (Bcoz source from 19th c.)
- Picard's 17th c. measurement was preceded by al Mamun's 9th c. measurement by 800 years as usual.
- However, important point is that this is retrospect:
- in prospect no navigators were willing to trust Picard
- therefore European problem of determining longitude at sea persisted.

- Long list discussed in Cultural foundations of Math
- identical infinite series
- "Newton's" sine series (Newton claimed sine series, and only rigor in calculus)
- "Leibniz" series for π,

- Fermat's challenge problem,
- Pascal's triangle (khanda meru).

- Aryabhata's recursive method = "Euler" method,
- Nilkantha's astronomical model= Tychonic model,
- Madhava's values = Clavius' trigonometric values an interpolated version
- ahargana= Julian day-number,
- Vateshvar="Stirling's" formula

- primary sources Ricci's letter. (Ricci was Clavius' student.)

- Despite all the above evidence
- West has not admitted theft of calculus.
- Dishonest historians like David Pingree and Kim Plofker keeping alive the myth of "independent rediscovery".
- Won't even discuss it. Any papers would be routinely censored
- (Indians fully cooperate with that: IIT Gandhinagar had a conference invited Plofker, but not me: clearly they want to sideline me.)

- People steal knowledge because they have an INFERIOR knowledge of the subject
- like students who cheat in an exam.
- (But if not caught in the act, they ALWAYS deny cheating and claim similarity of answers due to "independent rediscovery".)
- As a university teacher, I developed a way to catch such cheats AFTER the act

- and are unable to explain what they have written in their answer sheets.
- I used to ask searching question to suspected cheats about their answers while returning their answer sheets.
- Lack of understanding (of their own answers) proves theft or "dependent re-discovery".

- Much later, I applied this epistemic test to history of calculus.
- Cannot interrogate the past, but
- under suspicious circumstances (my evidence from criminal law)
- failure to understand is clinching proof of theft.
- Fact is that Europeans failed to fully understand calculus,

- 1. How to do an infinite sum
- 2. Exact definition of derivative

- Questions about 1 arose since precise trigonometric values needed for navigation)
- were derived in India (14th c.) using infinite series for sin and cosine and arctangent functions.

- Indians had summed infinite geometric series by 15th c.
- (finite geometric series known since ancient time, e.g. Egyptian "Eye of Horus" fraction).

- West got the formula but failed to understand the method by which it was derived.
- Descartes realized that summing an infinite series term by term is physically impossible
- it is a supertask or an infinite series of tasks which cannot be done in finite time.
- Referring to the infinite ("Leibniz") series for π he said it was "beyond the human mind".

- Galileo (who had access to Jesuit texts from Collegio Romano) concurred and left calculus to his student Cavalieri.
- Newton defined derivative using his silly fluxions, now abandoned.

- The West (e.g. Berkeley, Karl Marx) acknowledged fluxions were incomprehensible.
- Berkeley: on lack of understanding of calculus.
- Here is James Jurin's incomprehensible defence of fluxions.
- HENCE, mathematician Dedekind proposed "real" numbers at end of 19th c. as a supposedly better way to understand calculus.

- Today all calculus texts, including Indian class XI school texts, teach that limits are essential for calculus.
- Indeed, infinite sums, derivatives, integrals, and even functions all understood as "limits".
- But
**limits need "real" numbers**: e.g. sequence of partial sums of \[ \sqrt 2 = 1.414... = 1+\frac{4}{10} + \frac{1}{100} + ... \] - has NO limit in rational numbers, since \(\sqrt 2\) NOT a rational number.

- So Newton, Leibniz etc. could
**not**have understood calculus - since "real" numbers came long after them.
- and Newton's absurd fluxions stand abandoned
- except as proof of theft.

- derivative as finite difference good enough for all practical purposes
- just as finite sums \(π = 3.14159\) etc are ALL that we have in real life.
- But Newton linked calculus to physics
- and physics to religious belief:
- "eternal and universal laws of nature made by the Christian god."

- Note: Hinduism has ṛta, Buddhism has conditioned coorigination
- LAWS of god unique to post-Crusade Christian theology
- to mark a difference from Islam (Allah has habits and regularities but continuous creation hence no rigid laws)
- Newton abusively anti-church but fanatic Christian: believed laws of god had been revealed to him
- superstitiously flagged Egyptian chronology as "vain" since contrary to Biblical story of creation.

- "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." — George Santayana
- CKR: Those who don't learn from past mistakes repeat them, hence we study history.
- "Hegel said…[history repeats] twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce." — Karl Marx
- Correction: History repeats
**THRICE**: first as tragedy, then as farce, then as pure humbug.😄

- calculus stolen from India in 16th c. by Jesuits
- with the help of Syrian Christians from Kerala.

- The thesis that the calculus was stolen from India was itself stolen
- by a combination of Roman Catholics (Jesuits) and Syrian Christians
- in a preplanned way.

- I advertised a post-doc position for my INSA project
- in an international email list Historia Matematica.
- Employed a Syrian Christian Jolly K. John as research associate
- whom I knew from Pune U, and who was struggling without a job and used to visit my house to eat.

- who was a member of Historia Matematica list, and saw the ad. Wanted more info.
- Contacted me very indirectly through his friend Dennis Almeida from Exeter Univ.
- who contacted me through someone ELSE in NISTADS.
- (So that I don't get suspicious of being targeted.)

- Almeida, a complete traitor, posed as a fake patriot: said he wanted to do something for India.
- Would work on this for a PhD
- I fell for it.

- George Joseph had organized a conference in Trivandrum
- As conference organizer Joseph had privileged access to my papers; he grossly misused that privilege.
- At a meeting in Dec 2000 Joseph SHAMELESSLY plagiarised my paper in front of me
- without acknowledging or referring to my work.

- Later he said I will lie "I don't know you" (Of course he does; see his email.)
- Joseph said, I will say "I got the paper from Almeida."
- And in the proceedings of the Trivandrum conference he erased my name
- That is copyright violation. Never took copyright permission from me to publish the paper.

- No Indian scholar has publicly condemned Joseph even once.
- On the contrary many lauded him.
- If the theft of the thesis that calculus was stolen is acceptable,
- why is the theft of the calculus unacceptable??

- 3 British authors had written about the Indian calculus
- he sent copies of this to numerous people
- and one of these was forwarded to me.

- one of the authors J. K. John was my postdoctoral fellow
- who had passed on the material collected for my project on the promise of a higher salary
- the other was Dennis Almeida, and the third was an inconsequential Russian translator

- Exeter University set up an ethics committee
- into which George Joseph penetrated lying that he was in neutral party
- though he was himself a plagiarist
- and misguided the committee thoroughly
- lying that Bag and Katz had talked of the possibility of transmission of calculus.

- But my case was so strong the committee was obliged to rule in my favor
- as in this news item

- My latitude thesis above was that a good calendar was needed for navigation
- to determine declination hence latitude from solar altitude and
- These jokers Almeida and John wrote declination can be measured at sea. ]
- Just as calculus was damaged by thieves, the thesis of stolen calculus is damaged by thieves.

- In my Hawaii paper I made philosophical point that real numbers are not needed for calculus
- because for all practical applications on computers, floating point numbers are used.
- The joker plagiarists Almeida and George Joseph grossly misunderstood
- If you trust thieves this are the utter absurdities you get.

- Encouraged by successful serial plagiarism
- and worried by publication of my 2007 book
- in 2007 Joseph VERBATIM plagiarized those two papers
- now claiming to be an author.

- Some parts were published earlier in my name (e.g. Hawaii paper)
- Here are some examples cut-paste copying.
- This was followed by a media blitz.

- Because news release was from Manchester Indian press refused to believe me
- or read my book.
- Only Hindustan Times actually checked facts and published a retraction.

- A complaint was made to Manchester University
- The University said it was a media office mistake
- [[https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/indians-predated-newton-discovery-by-250-years/][And just put in an acknowledgment to my work (without admitting it was a verbatim copying)
- That is its British ethical and legal standard: verbatim copying only requires a belated acknowledgment!

- The Manchester University is committed to lack of ethics. This is clear from the fact that
- the "paper" mentioned in its FAKE NEWS press release was NEVER published in 16 years.
- (Could not be Because it is a verbatim copy) but the press release has not been retracted)
- But Manchester university shamelessly maintains that fake press release.
- The story is the same for many great Brit figures like Newton (or his successor Michael Atiyah!)

- Joseph Almeida et. al have stolen most brazenly and repeatedly, deliberately
- since they know that many colonised support them, few oppose.
- If you can't correct THIS theft concerning calculus in the present tense
- you have no hope of correcting the theft of calculus 500 years ago, or its resulting teaching.

- Orosius who wrote the first false history for the church ("History against the Pagans" in 5th c.
- starts by saying how easy it is to make dogs obedient.
- Remember? The colonial notices: "Indians and dogs not allowed"
- The colonised do behave like dogs unable to stand up against the master.
- The colonizer KNOWS the indoctrinated colonial dog can only wag tail before master.

- Europeans were backward in all departments of math
- developed an inferior understanding of calculus.

- Claims of discovery settled by what you TEACH not by church dogmas or regional chauvinism.
- So if you accept real numbers and limits, while teaching calculus, credit goes to West.
- Āryabhaṭa and Brahmagupta discovered calculus (taught as how to solve differential equations)
- NOT Madhava or "Kerala school" which refined it using infinite series.

- But correcting lies of history is a PROCESS, NOT a 1-time job after 500 years.
- The only process the colonised know is "trust the West" Manchester etc.
- Hence, the West CONTINUES to concoct brazen new lies of "discovery" in the present tense – even about the theft of the calculus.
- Because they KNOW you have no way to correct it.